Voiceless bilabial affricate

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Voiceless bilabial affricate
p͡ɸ
p͜ɸ

A voiceless bilabial affricate ([p͡ɸ] in IPA) is a rare affricate consonant that is initiated as a bilabial stop [p] and released as a voiceless bilabial fricative [ɸ]. It has not been reported to occur phonemically in any language.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiceless bilabial affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is bilabial, which means it is articulated with both lips.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Dutch Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect[1] up [ʊp͡ɸ] 'up, onto' Optional pre-pausal allophone of /p/.[1] See Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect phonology
English Broad Cockney[2] up [ˈɐʔp͡ɸ] 'up' Allophone of /p/, occurs mainly word-finally.[3] See English phonology
Received Pronunciation[4] Rare allophone of /p/.[4] See English phonology
North Wales[5] [ˈəp͡ɸ] Word-initial and word-final allophone of /p/; in free variation with a strongly aspirated stop [pʰ].[5] See English phonology
Scouse[6] [ˈʊp͡ɸ] Possible syllable-initial and word-final allophone of /p/.[6] See English phonology
German Some speakers tropfen [ˈtʁ̥ɔp͡ɸn̩] 'to drop' Allophone of /p͡f/. See Standard German phonology
Kaingang[7] [ˈp͡ɸɤ] 'seed' Possible word-initial allophone of /ɸ/.[7]
Northern Tiwa Taos dialect [ˌp͡ɸìˑˈwɛ̈̄ːnǣ] 'daughter' Allophone of /pʰ/, in free variation with [ph] and [ɸ]. See Taos phonology

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Peters (2010), p. 240.
  2. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 322-323.
  3. ^ Wells (1982), p. 323.
  4. ^ a b Gimson (2014), p. 172.
  5. ^ a b Penhallurick (2004), pp. 108-109.
  6. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 372.
  7. ^ a b Jolkesky (2009), pp. 680-681.

Bibliography[edit]