|<<||Selected anniversaries for September||>>|
|An archive of historical anniversaries that appeared on the Main Page
2017 day arrangement
- 1774 – Thomas Gage, royal governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, ordered soldiers to remove gunpowder from a magazine, causing Patriots to prepare for war.
- 1804 – German astronomer Karl Ludwig Harding discovered one of the largest main belt asteroids, naming it Juno after the Roman goddess.
- 1914 – The passenger pigeon, which once numbered in the billions, became extinct when the last individual (pictured) died in captivity.
- 1969 – Muammar Gaddafi led a coup d'état to overthrow Idris I of Libya.
- 1983 – A Soviet jet interceptor shot down the civilian Korean Air Lines Flight 007 near Sakhalin Island in the North Pacific, killing all 246 passengers and 23 crew on board.
- 1792 – French Revolution: Due to an overwhelming fear that foreign armies would attack Paris and prisoners would revolt, thousands of people were summarily executed.
- 1864 – American Civil War: Union forces entered Atlanta, Georgia, a day after the Confederate defenders fled the city, bringing the Atlanta Campaign to a close.
- 1946 – The interim government of India, headed by Jawaharlal Nehru (pictured), was formed to assist the transition of India from British rule to independence.
- 1957 – President Ngô Đình Diệm of South Vietnam became the first foreign head of state to make a state visit to Australia.
- 1992 – An estimated magnitude 7.2 earthquake off the coast of Nicaragua was the first tsunami earthquake to be captured on modern broadband seismic networks.
- 36 BC – Sicilian revolt: A victory by the fleet of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa over that of Sextus Pompeius in the Battle of Naulochus ended Pompeian resistance to the Second Triumvirate.
- 1777 – American Revolutionary War: The British Army and their Hessian allies defeated an American militia in the Battle of Cooch's Bridge.
- 1935 – On the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah, British racing motorist Malcolm Campbell (pictured) became the first person to drive an automobile over 300 mph (480 km/h).
- 1942 – The Holocaust: In possibly the first Jewish ghetto uprising, residents of the Łachwa Ghetto in occupied Poland, informed of the upcoming "liquidation" of the ghetto, unsuccessfully fought against their Nazi captors.
- 2001 – The Troubles: Protestant loyalists began picketing a Catholic primary school for girls in the Protestant portion of Ardoyne, Belfast, Northern Ireland.
- 476 – Germanic leader Odoacer captured Ravenna, the capital of the Western Roman Empire, and deposed Emperor Romulus Augustus.
- 1774 – British explorer James Cook became the first European to sight the island of New Caledonia.
- 1843 – Teresa Cristina of the Two Sicilies married Pedro II of Brazil (both pictured) at a state ceremony.
- 1957 – Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus deployed the Arkansas National Guard to prevent nine African American students from attending Little Rock Central High School.
- 2007 – Three terrorists suspected to be a part of Al-Qaeda were arrested in Germany after planning attacks on both Frankfurt Airport and Ramstein Air Base.
- 917 – Liu Yan declared himself emperor, establishing the Southern Han state in southern China, at his capital of Panyu (present-day Guangzhou).
- 1781 – American Revolutionary War: French naval forces handed Britain a major strategic defeat in the Battle of the Chesapeake.
- 1882 – A group of London school boys led by Bobby Buckle founded Tottenham Hotspur F.C. so they could continue to play sports during the winter months.
- 1921 – Popular American comedian Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle attended a party during which a woman was fatally injured; although he was eventually acquitted of manslaughter, the trial's scandal derailed his career.
- 1977 – NASA launched the robotic space probe Voyager 1 (pictured), currently the farthest spacecraft from Earth.
- 1781 – American Revolutionary War: General Benedict Arnold led British forces to victory in the Battle of Groton Heights.
- 1901 – U.S. President William McKinley (pictured) was fatally wounded by anarchist Leon Czolgosz at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York.
- 1952 – A prototype aircraft crashed at the Farnborough Airshow in Hampshire, England, killing the pilot and test observer on board, and 29 spectators.
- 1976 – Soviet pilot Viktor Belenko landed his MiG-25 in Hakodate, Japan, and declared his intention to defect.
- 2007 – The Israeli Air Force carried out an airstrike on a suspected nuclear reactor in the Deir ez-Zor region of Syria.
- 1159 – Pope Alexander III was chosen as the successor of Pope Adrian IV in a disputed election.
- 1778 – Anglo-French War: France invaded the island of Dominica and captured its British fort before the latter even knew that France had allied with the United States.
- 1936 – The last thylacine died in captivity in Hobart Zoo in Australia.
- 1940 – Second World War: The Luftwaffe changed their strategy in the Battle of Britain and began bombing London and other British cities and towns for more than 50 consecutive nights (Heinkel bomber pictured).
- 2010 – A Chinese fishing trawler, operating in disputed waters, collided with Japanese Coast Guard patrol boats near the Senkaku Islands, sparking a major diplomatic dispute between the two countries.
- 617 – Li Yuan defeated a Sui dynasty army in the Battle of Huoyi, opening the path to his capture of the imperial capital Chang'an and the eventual establishment of the Tang dynasty.
- 1796 – French Revolutionary Wars: The French defeated Austrian forces in Bassano, Venetia, present-day Italy.
- 1921 – In Atlantic City, New Jersey, Margaret Gorman (pictured) was crowned the "Golden Mermaid", the forerunner to the Miss America pageant.
- 1954 – Eight nations signed an agreement to create the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, a Southeast Asian version of NATO.
- 1966 – The American science fiction show Star Trek premiered with "The Man Trap", launching a media franchise that has since created a cult phenomenon and has influenced the design of many current technologies.
- 1493 – Ottoman Empire forces defeated the Croatian army at the Battle of Krbava Field.
- 1936 – Opposed to António de Oliveira Salazar's support of the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War, the crews of the Portuguese Navy ships NRP Afonso de Albuquerque and Dão mutinied while anchored in Lisbon harbour.
- 1954 – The 6.7 Mw Chlef earthquake struck Algeria, leaving at least 1,243 people dead and 5,000 injured, and forced the government to implement comprehensive reforms in building codes.
- 1969 – Allegheny Airlines Flight 853 collided in mid-air with a Piper PA-28 Cherokee flown by a student pilot near Fairland, Indiana, U.S., destroying both planes and killing all 83 occupants.
- 1971 – John Lennon's solo album Imagine was released.
- 1547 – Anglo-Scottish Wars: English forces defeated the Scots at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh near Musselburgh, Lothian, Scotland.
- 1897 – A peaceful labor demonstration made up of mostly Polish and Slovak anthracite coal miners in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania, U.S., was fired upon by a sheriff's posse in the Lattimer massacre.
- 1937 – Led by the United Kingdom and France, nine nations met in the Nyon Conference to address international piracy in the Mediterranean Sea.
- 1960 – Running barefoot in the marathon event at the Rome Olympics, Abebe Bikila (pictured) became the first person from Sub-Saharan Africa to win an Olympic gold medal.
- 2007 – Nawaz Sharif, the thirteenth Prime Minister of Pakistan, returned to the country after being ousted in a coup and exiled eight years earlier.
- 1226 – The first instance of the Catholic practice of perpetual Eucharistic adoration formally began in Avignon, France.
- 1649 – Cromwellian conquest of Ireland: Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army ended the Siege of Drogheda, took over the town and massacred its garrison.
- 1924 – French composer Gabriel Fauré (pictured) finished his last piece, a string quartet, before dying two months later.
- 1992 – The eye of Hurricane Iniki, the most powerful hurricane to strike the Hawaiian Islands in recorded history, passed directly over the island of Kauai, killing six people and causing around US$1.8 billion dollars in damage.
- 2001 – Al-Qaeda used four hijacked passenger airliners to carry out a series of suicide attacks against targets in New York City and the Washington, D.C., area.
- 490 BC – Greco-Persian Wars: Athenians and their Plataean allies turned back the first Persian invasion of Greece in the Battle of Marathon.
- 1848 – Switzerland became a federal state with the adoption of a new constitution.
- 1910 – Gustav Mahler's Symphony No. 8, one of the largest-scale choral works in the classical concert repertoire, was first performed in Munich.
- 1942 – World War II: The Imperial Japanese Army began the Battle of Edson's Ridge in an effort to retake Henderson Field on Guadalcanal.
- 1980 – The Turkish Armed Forces ousted Prime Minister Süleyman Demirel and would rule the country for three years before democracy was restored.
- 1992 – Aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, American Mae Jemison (pictured) became the first black woman in space.
- 2015 – An explosion involving illegally stored mining detonators in Petlawad, in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh, killed at least 105 people and injured more than 150 others.
- 1541 – After three years of exile, John Calvin returned to Geneva to reform the church under a body of doctrine that came to be known as Calvinism.
- 1899 – An expedition led by Halford Mackinder made the first ascent of Mount Kenya (pictured), the second-highest mountain in Africa.
- 1933 – Elizabeth McCombs became the first woman elected to the Parliament of New Zealand.
- 1971 – Following a failed coup attempt, Mao Zedong's second-in-command Lin Biao died in a plane crash while attempting to flee the People's Republic of China.
- 2007 – The United Nations General Assembly adopted the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, setting out the individual and collective rights of indigenous peoples, as well as their rights to culture, identity, language, employment, health, education and other issues.
- 919 – A coalition of native Irish, led by Niall Glúndub, failed in their attempt to drive the Vikings of the Uí Ímair from Ireland
- 1752 – In adopting the Gregorian calendar under the terms of the Calendar (New Style) Act 1750, the British Empire skipped eleven days (September 2 was followed directly by September 14).
- 1927 – In a freak automobile accident, dancer Isadora Duncan (pictured) died of a broken neck in Nice, France, after her scarf was caught on the wheel of a car in which she was a passenger.
- 1954 – In a secret nuclear test, a Soviet Tu-4 bomber dropped a 40-kiloton atomic weapon just north of Totskoye village, exposing some 45,000 soldiers and 10,000 civilians to nuclear fallout.
- 2007 – Late-2000s financial crisis: The Northern Rock bank received a liquidity support facility from the Bank of England, sparking a bank run—the United Kingdom's first in 150 years.
- 1530 – According to the Dominican Order, three mysterious women brought the painting Saint Dominic in Soriano to a friary in Soriano Calabro, Calabria, Italy.
- 1795 – French Revolutionary Wars: Great Britain seized the Dutch Cape Colony to use its facilities against the French Navy.
- 1830 – The Liverpool and Manchester Railway opened (train pictured) as the first locomotive-hauled railway to connect two major cities.
- 1935 – Nazi Germany enacted the Nuremberg Laws, which deprived German Jews of citizenship, and adopted a new national flag emblazoned with a swastika.
- 1963 – A bomb planted by members of the Ku Klux Klan exploded in the 16th Street Baptist Church, an African American church in Birmingham, Alabama, killing four children and injuring at least 22 others.
- 1776 – American Revolutionary War: American colonists defeated British troops at the Battle of Harlem Heights in present-day New York City.
- 1940 – Second World War: Italy captured the town of Sidi Barrani, but its invasion of Egypt (Italian tanks pictured) progressed no further.
- 1963 – Malaya, Singapore, North Borneo (present-day Sabah), and Sarawak merged to form Malaysia.
- 1990 – Construction of the Northern Xinjiang Railway was completed between Ürümqi and Alashankou, linking the railway lines of China and Kazakhstan, and adding a sizable portion to the Eurasian Land Bridge.
- 2007 – Seventeen Iraqi civilians were shot and killed by Blackwater Worldwide guards.
- 1683 – Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (pictured) wrote a letter to the Royal Society describing "animalcules" – the first known description of protozoa.
- 1862 – American Civil War: Almost 23,000 total casualties were suffered at the Battle of Antietam near Sharpsburg, Maryland, where Confederate and Union troops fought to a tactical stalemate.
- 1914 – World War I: The Franco-British and German armies began the "Race to the Sea", reciprocal attempts to envelop the northern flank of the opposing army through northern France and Belgium.
- 1970 – King Hussein ordered the Jordanian Army to oust Palestinian fedayeen from Jordan in what became known as Black September.
- 2011 – Adbusters, a Canadian anti-consumerist publication, organized a protest against corporate influence on democracy at Zuccotti Park in New York City that became known as Occupy Wall Street.
- 324 – Constantine the Great decisively defeated Licinius in the Battle of Chrysopolis, establishing Constantine's sole control over the Roman Empire, and ending the Tetrarchy.
- 1809 – The second theatre of the Royal Opera House in London opened after a fire destroyed the original theatre one year earlier.
- 1870 – Nathaniel P. Langford of the Washburn–Langford–Doane Expedition first observed a geyser in Wyoming Territory erupting at regular intervals and named it "Old Faithful" (video featured).
- 1918 – World War I: The Central Powers' defeat in the Battle of Dobro Pole played a role in the Bulgarian withdrawal from the war and opened the way for the subsequent liberation of Vardar Macedonia.
- 2014 – Scotland voted against independence from the United Kingdom.
- 634 – Arab–Byzantine wars: Rashidun Arabs under Khalid ibn al-Walid captured Damascus from the Byzantine Empire.
- 1777 – American Revolutionary War: British troops engaged American forces at the first Battle of Saratoga in New York.
- 1846 – Two French shepherd children, Mélanie Calvat and Maximin Giraud, reported experiencing a Marian apparition on a mountaintop near La Salette, France, now known as Our Lady of La Salette (statue pictured).
- 1970 – Greek student Kostas Georgakis set himself on fire in Genoa, Italy, as a protest against the Greek military junta of Georgios Papadopoulos.
- 1991 – Ötzi, a well-preserved natural mummy of a man from about 3300 BC, was discovered by two German tourists.
- 1498 – A tsunami caused by the Nankai earthquake washed away the building housing the statue of the Great Buddha (pictured) at Kōtoku-in in Kamakura, Japan.
- 1792 – The French Army achieved its first major victory in the War of the First Coalition at the Battle of Valmy.
- 1967 – Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard publicly announced the story of Xenu in a taped lecture sent to all Scientologists.
- 1977 – A series of celestial phenomena of unknown nature was observed in the western Soviet Union, Finland and Denmark.
- 2011 – The United States ended its "don't ask, don't tell" policy, allowing gays and lesbians to openly serve in the military.
- 1170 – Combined English and Irish forces seized Norse-Gaelic Dublin, forcing Ascall mac Ragnaill, King of Dublin, into exile.
- 1897 – In response to a letter written by eight-year-old Virginia O'Hanlon (pictured), The New York Sun published an editorial by Francis Pharcellus Church stating, "Yes, Virginia, there is a Santa Claus".
- 1937 – J. R. R. Tolkien's fantasy children's novel The Hobbit, which later served as a prequel to The Lord of the Rings, was first published.
- 1965 – Portugal outraged the United Kingdom by announcing its acceptance of a mission in Lisbon independently representing Rhodesia (or Southern Rhodesia), a British colony.
- 2001 – With racial tensions high after the September 11 attacks, a gang of British Muslim youths in Peterborough, England, murdered 17-year-old Ross Parker.
- 1598 – English playwright Ben Jonson killed actor Gabriel Spenser in a duel, for which he was indicted for manslaughter.
- 1862 – US President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, declaring the freedom of all slaves in Confederate territory by January 1, 1863.
- 1914 – First World War: The German submarine U-9 sank three Royal Navy cruisers, resulting in approximately 1,450 deaths.
- 1957 – François "Papa Doc" Duvalier (pictured) was elected President of Haiti as a populist before consolidating power and ruling as a dictator for the rest of his life.
- 1994 – The Nordhordland Bridge, which crosses Salhusfjorden between Klauvaneset and Flatøy in Hordaland, and is the second-longest bridge in Norway, was officially opened.
- 1568 – Anglo-Spanish War: At San Juan de Ulúa (in modern Veracruz, Mexico), Spanish naval forces forced English privateers to halt their illegal trade.
- 1779 – Anglo-French War: John Paul Jones led a Franco-American squadron to victory in the Battle of Flamborough Head, one of the most celebrated naval actions of the war.
- 1868 – Ramón Emeterio Betances (pictured) led the Grito de Lares, a revolt against Spanish rule in Puerto Rico.
- 1952 – In one of the first political uses of television to appeal directly to the populace, Republican vice presidential candidate Richard Nixon delivered the "Checkers speech", refuting accusations of improprieties with contributions to his campaign.
- 1983 – A bomb placed by the Abu Nidal organisation destroyed Gulf Air Flight 771, flying from Karachi, Pakistan, to Abu Dhabi, UAE, killing all 112 people aboard.
- 1180 – The Byzantine Empire was weakened by the death of Emperor Manuel I Komnenos.
- 1877 – The Imperial Japanese Army defeated Saigō Takamori and the Satsuma clan samurai at the Battle of Shiroyama in Kagoshima, the decisive engagement of the Satsuma Rebellion.
- 1911 – His Majesty's Airship No. 1, Britain's first rigid airship, was wrecked (pictured) by strong winds before her maiden flight at Barrow-in-Furness.
- 1946 – Clark Clifford and George Elsey, military advisers to US President Harry S. Truman, presented him with a top-secret report on the Soviet Union that would form the basis of the US policy of containment.
- 1996 – Representatives from 71 nations signed the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, which has not yet come into force because not enough signatories have ratified it.
- 1396 – Ottoman wars in Europe: Ottoman forces under Bayezid I (pictured) defeated a Christian alliance led by Sigismund of Hungary in the Battle of Nicopolis near present-day Nikopol, Bulgaria.
- 1775 – Ethan Allen and a small force of American and Quebec militia failed in their attempt to capture Montreal from British forces.
- 1911 – An explosion of badly degraded propellant charges on board the French battleship Liberté detonated the forward ammunition magazines and destroyed the ship.
- 1962 – The North Yemen Civil War began when Abdullah as-Sallal dethroned the newly crowned Imam al-Badr and declared Yemen a republic under his presidency.
- 1996 – The last Magdalene asylum, an Irish institution to rehabilitate so-called "fallen women", was closed.
- 1493 – Pope Alexander VI issued the papal bull Dudum siquidem, the last of the Bulls of Donation, marking the beginning of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
- 1580 – The Golden Hind (replica pictured) sailed into Plymouth, England, as explorer Francis Drake completed his circumnavigation of the globe.
- 1942 – The Holocaust: Nazi official August Frank issued a memorandum setting out how the belongings of murdered Jews were to be disposed of.
- 1959 – Japan was struck by Typhoon Vera, the strongest and deadliest typhoon on record to make landfall on the country with US$600 million in damages and over 4,000 deaths.
- 2002 – MV Le Joola, a Senegalese government-owned ferry, capsized off the coast of The Gambia, resulting in the deaths of at least 1,863 people.
Lynn Anderson (b. 1947)
- 1825 – Locomotion No. 1 hauled the train on the opening day of the Stockton and Darlington Railway, the first public railway to use steam locomotives.
- 1854 – The paddle steamer SS Arctic sank after a collision with SS Vesta, a much smaller vessel, 50 miles (80 km) off the coast off the coast of Newfoundland, killing approximately 320 people.
- 1916 – Lij Iyasu (pictured), the emperor-designate of Ethiopia, was deposed in favor of his aunt, Zewditu.
- 1941 – SS Patrick Henry, the first of 2,710 Liberty ships built during World War II by the United States, was launched.
- 1996 – The Taliban drove Afghan President Burhanuddin Rabbani out of Kabul and established the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.
- 1066 – William the Conqueror (pictured) and his fleet of around 600 ships landed at Pevensey, Sussex, beginning the Norman conquest of England.
- 1821 – The Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire from Spain was drafted in the National Palace in Mexico City.
- 1901 – Philippine–American War: Filipino guerrillas killed more than forty American soldiers in a surprise attack in the town of Balangiga on Samar Island.
- 1941 – The short-lived Drama uprising against the Bulgarian occupation in northern Greece began.
- 2009 – A protest held by 50,000 people in Conakry, Guinea, was forcefully disrupted by the military junta, resulting in at least 157 deaths and over 1,200 injuries.
- 1774 – The publication of The Sorrows of Young Werther raised the 24-year-old Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (pictured) to international fame.
- 1923 – The British Mandate for Palestine came into effect, officially creating the protectorates of Palestine under British administration and Transjordan as a separate emirate under Abdullah I.
- 1938 – At a conference in Munich, Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, and French Prime Minister Édouard Daladier reached a settlement, signing it at about 1:30 am the next day, stipulating that Czechoslovakia must cede the Sudetenland to Germany.
- 1963 – The University of East Anglia was founded in Norwich, England, after talk of establishing such a university in the city began as early as the 19th century.
- 2006 – Gol Transportes Aéreos Flight 1907 collided in mid-air with an Embraer Legacy business jet near Peixoto de Azevedo, Mato Grosso, Brazil, killing 154 people, and triggering a Brazilian aviation crisis.
- 1399 – Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Lancaster, deposed Richard II to become Henry IV of England, merging the Duchy of Lancaster with the crown.
- 1882 – The Vulcan Street Plant, the first hydroelectric central station to serve a system of private and commercial customers in North America, went on line in Appleton, Wisconsin, US.
- 1966 – Seretse Khama became the first President of Botswana when the Bechuanaland Protectorate gained independence from the United Kingdom.
- 1980 – Xerox, Intel and Digital Equipment Corporation published the first Ethernet specifications (8P8C connector pictured), currently the most widespread wired local area network (LAN) technology.
- 2009 – A 7.6 MW earthquake struck off the southern coast of Sumatra, Indonesia, killing 1,115 people and impacting an estimated 1.25 million people.